Ranging in Surveying – Direct Ranging – Indirect Ranging – Line Ranger [PDF]

Ranging in surveying

Ranging in surveying is an important concept surveyors use to determine distances between survey marks on the ground or above it. Due to limitations of survey instruments, surveyors are in need to use intermediate points. That’s where ranging technique in survey comes in to play. There are two types of ranging methods – direct ranging … Read more

Contour Interval – Calculation – Examples – Types – Scale – Formula

What is contour Interval in surveying?

On a topographic map, a contour line is a line that depicts ground elevation or depression. The vertical distance or difference in elevation between contour lines is known as a contour interval. Every sixth contour line has an index contour, which is a bolder or thicker line. The height of the land rises as the … Read more

Difference between Plane Surveying and Geodetic Surveying

Differences between plane surveying and geodetic surveying

Surveying is preliminary divided into plane surveying and geodetic surveying on the basis of considering earth surface as a spherical or plane. But there’re more differences between plane and geodetic surveying so let’s explore some of these: Different types of surveying Survey is the art of determining relative position of object on the surface of … Read more

Compaction factor test for workability of concrete

Compaction Factor Test

The compaction factor test is done to check the workability of concrete, on the basis of weight ratio between partially compacted to fully compacted concrete. We can’t use the slump test for low workable concretes. Concretes we mostly use in mass dam structures or road pavements have significantly low values of slump. For all such … Read more

Digital Level Surveying – Advantages – Component – Types

Digital Level Surveying

In digital level surveying, we uses levels that uses electron beam to analyze a level staff at a distance. You can measure differences in height between two points or determine the height of objects or structures with digital surveying levels. While interpreting gradation markings on the staff level, these types of digital levels decreases the … Read more

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