## Leveling Staff – Types – Reading Methods – Uses – PDF

Levelling staff is one of the major instruments used in civil engineering survey. Specifically, it is used in leveling while finding the difference between heights of two points. It has different names in the field as leveling rod, self-reading staff, staff-rod, or level staff.  . A leveling staff is a large size graduated ruler which … Read more

Plane table survey is a graphic method of surveying in which field work and plotting are done simultaneously. It is the fastest and easiest method of surveying where great accuracy is not a concern. It is useful for filling in details between stations fixed by other methods. In plane table survey, no heavy and costly … Read more

## Tacheometric Surveying – Principle – Method – Applications – Errors – Advantages

A tacheometric surveying is a branch of surveying in which we find the horizontal and vertical position of point on earth surface with the help of tacheometer. In this type of surveying there is no need of chain or tape for distance measurement and separate level for the measurement of elevation. In general sense, a … Read more

## Ranging in Surveying – Direct Ranging – Indirect Ranging – Line Ranger [PDF]

Ranging in surveying is an important concept surveyors use to determine distances between survey marks on the ground or above it. Due to limitations of survey instruments, surveyors are in need to use intermediate points. That’s where ranging technique in survey comes in to play. There are two types of ranging methods – direct ranging … Read more

## Contour Interval – Calculation – Examples – Types – Scale – Formula

On a topographic map, a contour line is a line that depicts ground elevation or depression. The vertical distance or difference in elevation between contour lines is known as a contour interval. Every sixth contour line has an index contour, which is a bolder or thicker line. The height of the land rises as the … Read more

## Difference between Plane Surveying and Geodetic Surveying

Surveying is preliminary divided into plane surveying and geodetic surveying on the basis of considering earth surface as a spherical or plane. But there’re more differences between plane and geodetic surveying so let’s explore some of these: Different types of surveying Survey is the art of determining relative position of object on the surface of … Read more

## Compaction factor test for workability of concrete

The compaction factor test is done to check the workability of concrete, on the basis of weight ratio between partially compacted to fully compacted concrete. We can’t use the slump test for low workable concretes. Concretes we mostly use in mass dam structures or road pavements have significantly low values of slump. For all such … Read more

## Digital Level Surveying – Advantages – Component – Types

In digital level surveying, we uses levels that uses electron beam to analyze a level staff at a distance. You can measure differences in height between two points or determine the height of objects or structures with digital surveying levels. While interpreting gradation markings on the staff level, these types of digital levels decreases the … Read more

## Chain Surveying – Principles of Chain Surveying

Chain surveying is a very common method of surveying that is used for less-precise but quick results. It is the simplest of all other methods of surveying like traversing, topography, or plane table surveying. Chain surveying is a very old method but is still used at times when you don’t have proper equipment and technologies … Read more